The name of God the Merciful This article was first published on the site Ahmed Hamdi space
Envisages writer in this research that is shedding some of the floodlights on one of the most important Algerian newspapers that followed, in the opening line, a way critical to scathing, and a review of a comic caricature of media to materials, and carving the morally clear trend, included prose text along with the poetic text, .
Those are the newspaper, "hell", which has made itself a hell Alvh politicians and ideologues opponents, and exposes the maneuvers, and reveals their plots, and disgraced Ostarhm, also targeted through publication in this critical character to do to respond to the opponents and critics of the "Algerian Muslim Scholars Association," and bring in images depicting extremely .
Each review is through approach aimed to highlight the role and function of this leading newspaper in the history of the Algerian Arabic press, and the history of the national movement, also aims to identify the conditions of its inception, and try to identify its founders and writers and journalists and their definition.
Increasing importance of research into the details of this newspaper for being still unknown when specialists not to mention the general public, but almost fade Limbo, where they have not been by definition, even in articles and press car, let alone studies and academic research, both literary ones or media, and thereby ratified the description of the martyr (1), Which is one of the main founders, Palmrhomh(2) This Ngmt without some vague references here and there in the right referred to, in addition to the article published by the poet Mohammed Abdul Qader Green Alsaúha in the newspaper "Weekly Mujahid," which contributed significantly to the evocation of Limbo.
لقد اطلعت أثناء بحثي حول جذور الخطاب الأيديولوجي الجزائري عبر صحافة الحركة الوطنية، على اسم هذه الصحيفة الغريب والدال مباشرة على أنه ديني من جهة ونقدي وهزلي من جهة ثانية، ومن ثمة حاولت الحصول عليها، ففي البداية عثرت عليها في ميكروفيلم، بالمكتبة الوطنية، ثم بعد ذلك مكنني الأستاذ مراد العمودي نجل الشهيد محمد الأمين العمودي، من الإطلاع على أعدادها الكاملة، وبناء على هذه النسخة أعددنا هذه الدراسة التي تتبع الخطوات التالية بعد المدخل:
The historical framework of the newspaper
The opening line
The historical framework of the newspaper
Founded "Algerian Muslim Scholars Association"(3) Day 5 Mai 1931 After that the conditions have been created after years of incorporation of labor, which is printed the first three decades of the twentieth century, where the call through its newspapers "critic" and "meteor" Sheikh Abdelhamid Ben Badis(4) As well as other newspapers across the harbingers of "reform" and "Desert Echo" and form its foundation and wrap around Algeria scientists respond cutter on celebrations immortalized century invasion of Algeria in 1930 These celebrations have reached the arrogance and vanity and provoke the feelings of the nation's borders untold.
Playing Senate Abdelhamid Ben Badis and Mohammed Bashir Ibrahimi(5) And Mohamed Lamine vertical and other scientists role considering in this regard, where they focused their efforts, in addition to education, the press and cultural clubs, professional sports teams, and mention that the newspapers "Algerian Muslim Scholars Association" has suffered severely from repression, Within one year, has been :
Sunnah Muhammadiyah, issued them 13 Number of 10 Avril to 03 July 1933
Sharia prophetic Muhammadiyah, issued them 07 Only the numbers of 17 July 28 August 1933
Normal path, which was issued 17 Number of 11 December 1933 To 08 January 1934
It is worth mentioning that the Algerians had a bad relationship with the press, they knew what they knew first-lethal tool in the hands of colonialism, with the beginning of the invasion and exactly starting from the day 25 June 1830 Where invading forces issued which brought with it a newspaper Estafette D'Alger Press also identified a third newspaper in the world in the Arabic language, and the first in Algeria, a newspaper "evangelist" issued starting on 15 September year 1847 The title indicates the content missionary .
However, starting from the issuance of the law, which became not know the law on freedom of the press 29 July 1881 Some of the initiatives and attempts modestly to create Algerian press began, so what the solution of the twentieth century until they press the movement of the Algerian had completed the terms of its founding, to become shortly after tool to enlighten the conscience of the world and kick and wake-up patriotism, has emerged in this direction several newspapers, among them, for 1925 Sheikh Ben Badis in the press begins to establish his newspaper "critic" and then "meteor".
However, the establishment of "Algerian Muslim Scholars Association" year 1931 Thus not pass without provoking the ire of colonialism, which has everything in his power, and the work of the Assembly split this young and already has made a group of dissent by Trgian(6)And founded (Year Scholars Association) Day 12 September 1932 In addition to a number of newspapers that have joined enthusiastically to the publication of this letter dissident Assembly, such as the newspaper "success" (1920 ـ 1956) The newspaper "Algerian author" (1926 ـ 1947) .
The newspapers large campaign to attack the "Algerian Muslim Scholars Association," and thought reform, and repeated those attacks under total silence by the "Algerian Muslim Scholars Association," especially since Sheikh Ben Badis does not like this kind of bickering, but works all in his power .
In the meantime Trgiwn comic critical newspaper founded on "standard" specialized in mug and attacks on the "Algerian Muslim Scholars Association," and focused its criticism on the actors where the characters and interference in their private lives, and did not hesitate in the exposure until households and families, and went down to the low level of bathos .
رسمت “الجحيم “ هدفا واضحا هو التصدي لصحيفة “المعيار” والرد عليها، خصوصا بعد اقتناع بعض العلماء بدور ومفعول هذا النوع من الصحافة الذي يشد انتباه القراء من خلال النكت والأسلوب التهكمي والتصوير الكاريكاتيري للأشخاص، ومن ثمة يؤثر عليهم في أحكامهم ورؤاهم ، لذلك بادروا بإصدار هذه الصحيفة التي جعلت حروف عنوانها متكونة من الأفاعي والعقارب التي يزخر بها الجحيم، والهدف من كل ذلك واضح وجلي تماما هو الرد بكل قوة على الصحافة الطرقية ومقارعتها بالأسلوب الذي يفهمونه، حتى تسكت وترجع عن غيها.
It must be emphasized here that the leadership of the Association of Scientists did not order the issuance of this newspaper(7) It was the initiative of the Secretary of the martyr Mohammed Al Amoudi, Mohammed Saeed Al Zahri(8) Hamza Bukushh(9) And Mohammed Saleh Khbashash(10) And even assert that their newspaper wrote in an editorial in independent first issue that he spent "Head guards of Hell" as follows:
( Jesus was Abdullah bin Abbas "Z" sitting in the House of published science, Vstmh a junta mob, remained silent about Ibn Abbas, did not answer him, but one of those present made to this Catem assailant slapped him and whip the earth, Fasthassan prophet Abdullah bin Abbas, the defense said : "It's not your loved one who is not in his people ribald"
Has appeared in these days Rahat belong to the human race, which disowned them. These pigs have taken insults and defamation and libel symptoms craft scholars and leaders merchandise Royjoha despite the crisis, which does not sell because of other goods.
The paper found a rotten Highness "Instr"(11) A fact Mahr of the dirtiest and Angus Almaahir and wrote in the paper what Otrbua done some foolish ilk, and Juvo by some cowards, and they were convinced that air during them and that country Algeria was left where only their supporters or Ihabhm, not where the fights them or curse them or criticizes and so .
We established this newspaper blessed Pure chaste and fair not only for the purpose of revenge of virtue and the defense of the innocent and the cleansing symptoms Qtrna Aziz of malignant germs that reproached her where greed and love of the presidency and the scramble to collect huge amounts of money and enormous collection of titles. And Snaziq people aberration and disbelief and stubbornness fold assaulted by the gentlemen of innocent worshipers of God) (12)
Thus, to cite an incident Abdullah bin Abbas, and the initiative to restrain the aggressor and the desirability of bin Abbas, it indicates that the establishment of a newspaper, "hell," but it is a private initiative, not a formal decision of the Office "Algerian Muslim Scholars Association," and its mission is to deter and discipline the aggressors, and to expose and reveal .
Tells Alsaúha in the aforementioned article, details regarding the location and circumstances of this newspaper print as follows:
( The newspaper was printed in the hell Ben Badis Press Constantine at night without his knowledge. And that workers are doing so out of their times, and confidentially because the basic requirement between them and the owners of the paper is that the imam did not know this.) (13)
It seems the researcher careful that it is difficult to hide from the Ben Badis, it is known for his intelligence Stoker, and astute political consummate, regulatory and his superior ability, and in general we informed, as we pointed out earlier, the full numbers of this rare newspaper, which did not exceed seven numbers, the first being released 30 March 1933 As for the rest of the numbers were included in the following table:
The date of issuance
30 / 03 / 1933
05 / 04 / 1933
13 / 04 / 1933
20 / 04 / 1933
27 / 04 / 1933
04 / 05 / 1933
11 / 05 / 1933
According to the table above, we note that this newspaper has been issued within a very short period of time, ie, between March and May 1933, the first years that were struggling with the "Algerian Muslim Scholars Association" on several fronts, especially on the front of the challenge of the colonial authorities began to confiscate .
When you browse the numbers of this paper show that every editor pseudonyms names, usually constitute a metaphor carries specific connotations, increase the ferocity of "hell", except the owner of concession Joclari Mohammed Sharif Juglaret (14), A character has a prominent role in the history of the national press, it is a French origin who converted to Islam in the city of Biskra, and became a so-called Muhammad Sharif, due to being a French citizen is entitled to be granted by the French authorities the right to franchise the establishment of newspapers and in accordance with the requirements of French law, and in this property, we find .
The identity and the names of writers and editors of the newspaper, "hell", they are all carried out under the signatures pseudonyms, among them:
Head guards of Hell, an editorial writer
Others, such as metaphor : Hamann, delighted, Monitor, Shabib, the narrator, poet guards of Hell, stallion, Alkuaa, Pharaoh, Bodefrh.
We note that Mr. Ibrahim Al Gharafa, which is a party belonging to the Algerian people, originally from the valley gutter, has made him a center for the distribution of the newspaper immediately after the arrival of the city of Constantine, and his name does not appear on the pages of the newspaper.
Tells Alsaúha(15) In his article mentioned about the late Sheikh Hamza Bukushh that Mohammed Saeed Al Zahri and Mohamed Lamine vertical and Mohammed Saleh Khbashash and Hamza Bukushh himself are the founders of the newspaper "to hell" and especially including Mohammed Secretary vertical and Mohammed Saeed Al Zahri, and the latter as always Alsaúha is the head guards of Hell, and the stallion .
"Hell," the newspaper of Sheikh Mohammed Bashir Ibrahimi, and poet Mohammed Eid Al Khalifa, has been published(16) According to testimony Bukushh.
Has published the first cut titled ( Song of the perineum) In the fourth edition, and within what came in:
My spirit and my soul on the cheap
Boy from the mountains of the beast may Gower Alohacha
Became the core of the lute and copyright Javea
Iqbh opinion of the people, that Qubhawwa Alvhacha
Nights Tqdt over whenever mentioned
Bali inhumane function and Asha(17)
And published poet Mohammed Eid severed entitled (Cables deceived people) In the sixth edition, what came from within the:
Jackets for lifting Mkhaza are various automated bin, in front of him and behind him
People cheated Balimamp but God revealed Khbuth and Riah(18)
And point out that they stopped after the issuance date of the seventh edition 11 Mai 1933 Goal achieved where the issuance of a newspaper to silence the "standard".
The opening line
The basic principle is shaped opening of the line to the newspaper (Hell) Of the general principles of the policy of "Algerian Muslim Scholars Association," all the forces that stand in the face and the face of charlatans and Trgian, and attempts to address the colonial missionary, is that those principles have raised the ire of both sides: الطرقيين من جهة، والسلطات الاستعمارية من جهة أخرى، حيث تعرضت لنقد شديد من قبل “جمعية علماء السنة ” التي على ركزت على أن “جمعية العلماء المسلمين الجزائريين” إن هي إلا حركة وهابية دخيلة، هدفها زعزعة إيمان العوام، والقضاء على مقومات الإيمان التقليدي الذي حفظ وصان الشخصية الجزائرية على مر العصور وكان الملجأ الآمن للجزائريين في كل أوقات الشدة، وهكذا وجدت “جمعية العلماء المسلمين الجزائريين” نفسها أمام هذه الهجمة الشرسة، التي استهدفت مبادئها أسسها الفكرية ، أما من حيث الواجهة الإعلامية فقد وجد أعضاؤها أنفسهم أمام سيل جارف من الهجومات الضارية والتجريح المشين.
In light of this critical fact, the newspaper "hell" policy should strike a balance between the principles of "Algerian Muslim Scholars Association" reform, and fighting multiple assaults and criticisms tendentious, language that is understood by the owners of this campaign, and no doubt that thin line under separates the speech the official Assembly (19).
The newspaper "hell" has expressed its policy objective of the establishment in the first editorial, "the first word .. After ", signed under a pseudonym is the head guards of Hell, where I wrote :
( We established this newspaper blessed Pure chaste and fair for the sole purpose of revenge of virtue and the defense of symptoms innocent and cleanse Qtrna Aziz of malignant germs that Otneptha greed and love of the presidency and the scramble to collect huge amounts of money and the collection of massive titles and Snaziq people aberration and disbelief and stubbornness fold assaulted him on innocent gentlemen of sunflower )(20)
Has developed its slogan is "free and independent newspaper defends the honor and virtue ..tqom edited elite guards of Hell.. Slogans: Stick to those who disobeyed. "
Did not put the newspaper "hell" into account the artistic and technical aspects of writing, it is a satirical newspaper, not an information sheet and newspaper opinion, but comic newspaper tend to plucking and humor and images Smileys, where consists of four pages on the size of "Altableod" and its contents consist as follows :
In the world of literature
Nor Tgrenk serious titles they are all laughing at the joke, and as we have a model of the editorials, you model of sarcastic comments aimed at Sheikh Mahmoud alcohol(22) Installed by France to Algeria mufti:
( Resistance .. "Alcohol"
We saw this word written with a pen on a large broadband ads plastered walls, and we do not know Is this word distorted as saying: Alcohol and alcohol resistance. Or that those who smeared these ads and hung on the walls they want to "resist alcohol." This meaning is not valid unless the person is considered that this is a disease of moral diseases Alubiih, And that the scourge of social ills that people should be Akabloha all resistance and struggle and resist alcohol and intoxicants.
May we take the truth from the official source, and we know that the origin is resistance "alcohol" which is the mother of all evils and that there is a group seeking to establish another association to resist the "alcohol" which is her father ..)
In light of the above, we hope to have Sultna some floodlights on this rare newspaper, which made sure that does not make the pages mentioned any writer in his name outright, except the concessionaire name, but this becomes difficult for the researcher to determine who are the owners of a private articles .
(1) Poet and journalist Shahid was born in the valley of the south will Algerian year 1892 Where he learned Arabic and French principles .. Worked as a notary interpreter legit agent legitimate president of the agents association secretary-general, "Algerian Muslim Scholars Association" Head of Youth Association Conference, contributed significantly to the outgoing Algiers between the two newspapers- Issued in French newspaper La Défense year 1934 To year 1939- Also contributed to the largest premium version in the newspaper, "hell" in Arabic, Newspapers published in the "success" and "reform" and "Desert Echo" and "meteor" and "courage" in French . Did not hesitate to call on young people to the revolution when it broke which made the colonists take it by force, and shine upon the harshest kinds of torment until he died near the Fermi railway Bajeebh year .1957
(2) Mohammed Abdul Qader Green Alsaúha "read a new newspaper in hell" newspaper "Weekly Mujahid" number: 1666 On 10 July 1992 P.:20
(3) Seen in many references, inter alia: D. Ammar Talbi "Ibn Badis .. His life and its effects "i 4, the Algerian company owner Haji Abdul Qadir Bodaod, Algeria 1997
(4) Imam Abdelhamid Ibn Badis was born on 5 December 1889 In Constantine , Science has received at the hands of the elders of the city, To move in 1908 To Tunisia to complete his studies at Zaytuna Mosque where he took the flag from the sheikhs and Alnkhali Mohammed Tahar Ben Achour . Get a leave year 1912 To move to Mecca to perform the Hajj, has been settled for some time in the city of Medina, to come back to Constantine year 1913 Where he devoted all his time to teaching and journalism, the owner of the slogan ( Our religion Islam and the Arabic language, Algeria and homeland ) Founded the newspaper "critic" Constantine Day 2 July 1925 where he oversees the edited selection of Algerian youth, and manages the administrative affairs Mr. Ahmed Bouchmal, and directed by Imam Abdelhamid Ibn Badis, stopped by the colonial authorities on 29/10/1925 And subsequently issued a newspaper magazine then "meteor" starting on 12/11/1925 That ceased publication in August 1939. It was his active role in the establishment of "Scholars Association" year 1931
(5) Mohammed Bashir Ibrahimi Rafik Ben Badis in the struggle, was born in the village of Ras Valley State Tower Day 19 June 1889. He was educated by his father , Navigate year 1911 إلى المدينة المنورة حيث تعمق في العلوم الإسلامية واللغوية ثم انتقل إلى دمشق وعاد إلى الجزائر سنة 1921 حيث بدأ نشاطه الإصلاحي والتربوي بمدينة سطيف , اتصل بابن باديس وأسس معه جمعية العلماء المسلمين الجزائريين. تولى رئاسة الجمعية بعد وفاة الشيخ ابن باديس سنة 1940 وهو منفي بمدينة آفلو , ندد بمجازر 8 Mai 1945 فاعتقلته السلطات الاستعمارية وكان يكتب افتتاحية جريدة البصائر .. لسان حال الجمعية .. انتقل إلى المشرق سنة 1952 ليشرف على بعثات جمعية العلماء . وعندما اندلعت الثورة أيدها ولم يعد للجزائر إلا بعد الاستقلال . توفى تحت الإقامة الجبرية يوم 16 افريل 1964
(6) ينظر بهذا الصدد : عبد الرحمن بن إبراهيم بن العقون ” الكفاح القومي والسياسي من خلال مذكرات معاصرة، الفترة الأولى 1920ـ1936″ المؤسسة الوطنية للكتاب 1984
(7) م.لا.ع.ق. السائحي، المرجع السابق.
(8) محمد السعيد الزاهري شاعر وصحافي، من مواليد ليانة بولاية بسكرة يوم 18 سبتمبر 1900، من أسرة علم مشهورة، تلقى تعليمه في مسقط رأسه ثم قسنطينة فتونس، أصدر سنة 1925 صحيفة ” الجزائر” التي أوقفت بعد ثلاثة أعداد ثم أصدر صحيفة ” البرق” سنة 1927 ، ساهم سنة 1931 في تأسيس “جمعية العلماء المسلمين” قام إلى جانب محمد الأمين العمودي بتأسيس صحيفة “الجحيم” ، انفصل عن الجمعية سنة 1937 وفي ماي 1938 أصدر صحيفة ” المغرب العربي” التي صودرت بعد خمسة أعداد ليصدر بعد ذلك من وهران صحيفة ” الوفاق” وفي سنة 1947 أصدر من جديد “المغرب العربي” لتدافع عن مبادئ “حركة انتصار الحريات الديمقراطية” وبعد توقيفها ساهم سنة 1950 ساهم في إصدار الصحيفة الهزلية “عصا موسى” للرد على صحيفة “الشعلة” التي أصدرها الشهيد أحمد رضا حوحو، وكأن التاريخ يعيد نفس معركة “المعيار” و “الجحيم” وفي سنة 1956 أعاد إصدار “المغرب العربي” لتكون قريبة من المصاليين الأمر الذي جلب له غضب جبهة التحرير، قتل يوم 21 Mai 1956.
(9) حمزة بوكوشة شاعر وصحفي من مواليد وادي سوف سنة 1908 وتوفى سنة 1994 أحد مؤسسي جمعية العلماء، من محرري جريدة “البصائر”
(10) محمد الصالح خبشاش شاعر وصحفي من مواليد أولاد يعقوب بولاية قسنطينة سنة 1904 وتوفي سنة 1939
(11) المقصود بذلك صحيفة ” المعيار”
(12) صحيفة “الجحيم” كلمة أولى.. أما بعد ، العدد الأول ، بتاريخ 30 March 1933
(13) .لا.ع.ق. السائحي، المرجع نفسه.
(14) جوكلاري محمد الشريف Juglaret Mohamed Chérif، هو جان لوي جوكلاري ولد بفرنسا سنة 1904 استقر بمدينة بسكرة وبها تعرف على الإسلام وحضارته، حيث أسلم وحسن إسلامه، استقر بمدينة الجزائر سنة 1931 وبما أن السلطات الفرنسية كانت تضع العراقيل القانونية لإنشاء الصحف ، من ضمنها ضرورة تمتع المتصرف بالجريدة وصاحب امتيازها بالجنسية الفرنسية فقد قرر جوكلاري الفرنسي أن يساعد كل من يريد أن ينشئ صحيفة من رجال الإصلاح، وبهذه الصفة فهو صاحب امتياز الصحف التالية: ( المرصاد.. 1931 ـ الجحيم..1933 ـ الحياة..1933 ـصوت الشعب..1933 ـ La Défense ..1934 ـ La Justice .. 1935 ـ الليالي.. 1936 ) وانضم إلى صفوف ثورة أول نوفمبر 1954 حيث استشهد سنة 1958 .
(15) لا.ع.ق. السائحي، المرجع نفسه.
(16) محمد العيد آل خليفة من أكبر شعراء الجزائر في القرن العشرين، من مواليد 28 أوت سنة 1904 بعين البيضاء وتوفى يوم 31 جويلية سنة 1979
(17) صحيفة “الجحيم” أنشودة العجان، العدد الرابع ، بتاريخ 30 أفريل 1933
(18) صحيفة “الجحيم” كبول خدع الناس، العدد السادس ، بتاريخ 04 Mai 1933
(19) لا.ع.ق. السائحي، المرجع نفسه.
(20) صحيفة “الجحيم” كلمة أولى.. أما بعد، العدد الأول ، بتاريخ 30 March 1933
(21) تعبير تهكمي عن علماء السنة: السينية: طبق للأكل
(22) الشيخ محمود كحول صحفي ومفتي من مواليد قسنطينة سنة 1875 ناصب جمعية العلماء العداء، قتل سنة 1936 وحاولت السلطات الفرنسية أن تنسب ذلك لبعض أعضاء جمعية العلماء، لكنها باءت بالفشل.
المجلة الجزائرية للعلوم السياسية والاعلام